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Tag Archive research

The Bonjour!


Writing – a simple medium of communication – is as natural for the contemporary individuals, as breathing. However, can we name the ones who invented it? Were they the Mesopotamians seeking for an information-transmitting tool, effective in their expanding world [Kramer 1963, p. 302]? Were they the Chinese giving rise in 1200BC to the contemporary Chinese language with the use of oracle-bone inscriptions [Boltz 1999, p. 75]? Were they the Americans marking the famous stone block in the today Veracruz state, Mexico [Briggs 2006]? Confusing…

Are there any such dilemmas in tourism? The passport was first issued on the regulated and formal basis in 1414 in England at the time of King Henry V [Hjalager 2015, p. 6]. However, was it really such a novelty? Let’s consider the medieval Islamic Caliphate, which in order to ensure that taxes are not evaded introduced bara (receipt for taxes paid). Only with this document a travel to different regions was possible [Stillman 1992, p. 6]. Sounds familiar?

Both, writing and passport (and many other things!) were invented several times throughout history. The re-invention of the already invented things is an obvious waist of time and resources. The principle applies as much to the breakthrough discoveries, as to the humble advances in the research! The ancient communities didn’t have any of the communication tools disposable today and thus the time and space differences were insurmountable. However, nowadays all sorts of information and communication technologies invite us to share the processed advances in our researches and make our tiny contribution to the incredible world of science. Even more – to share the results is not a possibility, but a necessity.

There is no need to re-invent writing.

Author: Dawid Szutowski



Briggs, H., 2006, “Oldest” New World writing found, BBC News. Retrieved from: http:news.bbc.co.uk (31.3.2015)

Preliminary research 3

The research aimed at creating innovations’ classification designed for tourism companies. To reach the objective, systematic literature review based on SALSA method and meta-synthesis approach were used. Seventeen articles from three groups extracted in classification procedure were analysed. Author’s multidimensional classification including innovation’s type and the degree of novelty involved was proposed. It took a graphic form with a descriptive component.


The research contributes both to the research and to the world of practice. First, by joining the current scientific discussion about innovations, which is not transmitted with equal intensity into tourism. Second, by delivering a framework for analysing innovations in tourism companies.

The research was limited to leading tourism, hospitality and sport journals. The time frame was set as January 2000 – May 2014. No books and conference proceedings were included. Further investigations could include different kinds of publications and expand the time frame. Also what seems beneficial for further investigations is the analysis of specialised classifications and creation of appropriate classification for the whole service sector and low-tech companies.

Author: Dawid Szutowski

The research was published in:

Szutowski D., 2014, Classification of Innovations in Tourism Companies – systematic literature review, [in:] Kruczek Z., Banasiak W. (eds.), Dynamika przemian rynku turystycznego, Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Turystyki i Języków Obcych, Warsaw, pp. 37-43.

Preliminary research 2

The purpose of the research was to explore the relationship between financial effects of innovation, stock price changes and theoretically related variables. The research was conducted in three countries – Poland, Italy and Sweden. It concentrated on listed tourism enterprises and relied on event-study method. The data was analysed using the regression model. All the necessary evidence concerning innovation was gathered through ProQuest database, and the information on the tourism companies’ market value through stock exchanges’ databases.

Basing on the literature studies a set of eight variables differentiating the relatio§n between innovation and market value was determined. The research revealed that organisational innovation generates stronger impact on the market value than product one. Also it revealed that innovation signalled by a single announcement generates higher increase in market value than the one communicated through a series of releases.

The limitations included the limited spacial scope. Also, it was not possible to verify the significance of two variables due to the insufficient number of observations. Increasing the geographical differenciation and expanding the sample seem beneficial for further research. The proposed model posses a practical applicability. It could support tourism companies’ managers in planning innovation policies. The paper attempts to fulfil the research gap concerning the relation between innovation and the market value of tourism enterprises. The introduced model constitutes the main novelty.

Author: Dawid Szutowski


Szutowski, D., 2015, The model approach towards measuring the impact of innovation on tourism enterprises’ market value, Research Papers of Wrocław University of Economics, no. 379, pp. 460-467.

The research gap

Kotler and Trias indicate a major problem in the management of innovation – the lack of complex, unified, and widely accepted theory. Such situation has serious practical implications. The authors compare innovation management to marketing and finance, and deliver the results of Business Week survey . Most managers recognize, and use marketing tools such as market segmentation, brand positioning, 4P, etc. Also, each manager recognizes and uses the financial tools such as cash-flows analysis, analysis of costs and profits, etc. However, almost a half of managers do not recognize any tool of innovation, or creativity policies. There is no consensus on what model should be used in innovation management, and where to allocate the responsibility. In the result, most companies are condemned to loosing control on their innovativeness.

The gap in tourism

Hjalager indicates “that there is still only limited systematic and comparable empirical evidence of the level of innovative activities and their impacts and wider implications for destinations and national economies. An agenda for future research is emerging, suggesting that there is quest for both formal quantification and for qualitative studies of the foundations, processes, implications and policies of innovation in tourism” [Hjalager 2010, p. 1].

Author: Dawid Szutowski



Hjalager, A., 2010, A review of innovation management in tourism, Tourism Management, 31, pp. 1-12.

Trias, F., Kotler, Ph., 2011, Winning at innovation. The A-to-F model, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire.